Mengulas Korea On-line E-Procurement System (Koneps) di Korea Selatan

September 4, 2016 by  

Artikel ini ada pada kategori Pengadaan - Berita dan Artikel Pengadaan, Pengadaan Barang Jasa

Kemajuan suatu negara tercermin dari pesatnya perkembangan pembangunan di segala sektor. Tentu saja hal tersebut akan melibatkan kegiatan pengadaan barang dan jasa sebagai penunjangnya. Pembentukan sistem yang efisien menjadi hal yang sangat krusial sehingga inovasi serta strategi pun dibentuk demi kelancaran aktivitas pengadaan. Salah satu sistem yang dibentuk adalah e-Procurement yang bukan hanya telah diterapkan secara konsisten di Indonesia, tetapi juga di Korea Selatan.

Pembangunan Ekonomi Korea Selatan
Saat ini peran Korea Selatan dalam perdagangan dunia sangat diperhitungkan. Pada Januari sampai November 2014 total perdagangan Korea Selatan sebesar 1.005,1 miliar dolar atau naik 2,26 % dibandingkan tahun 2013 pada periode yang sama yang tercatat sebesar 982,9 miliar dolar. Negara- negara tujuan ekspor terbesar Korea Selatan adalah China, Amerika Serikat, dan Jepang (laporan ITPC Busan Korea Selatan, 2014). Peningkatan indikator Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB) per kapitanya dari tahun 1960 sampai 2012 mengalami kenaikan sekitar 14,6 kali lipat. Hal ini merupakan lompatan terbesar yang pernah dicapai dalam pembangunan ekonomi suatu negara di dunia sampai saat ini. Korea Selatan juga telah jadi negara termaju di dunia dalam hal infrastruktur teknologi. Sejak tahun 2000, seluruh masyarakat Korea Selatan telah menikmati jaringan internet 100 MB/detik, siaran televisi interaktif definisi tinggi teknologi komunikasi 4G. Industri-industri Korea sekarang adalah otomotif, semikonduktor, elektronik, pembuatan kapal-kapal dan baja. Korea juga dengan intens mengembangkan industri-industri strategis masa depan seperti nanoteknologi, bioteknologi, teknologi informasi, robotika, dan teknologi ruang angkasa. Korea Selatan juga memiliki hubungan bilateral yang produktif dengan negara-negara lain khususnya Indonesia.

Berkaitan dengan sistem pengadaan barang dan jasa, baru-baru ini diadakan pertemuan antara Lembaga Kebijakan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa dengan Public Procurement Service Korea Selatan di Kintex, demi menindaklanjuti MoU yang telah disepakati sebelumnya. Kedua belah pihak berkomitmen untuk mengadakan transfer teknologi melalui pertukaran profesional di bidang IT. Angka statistik menunjukkan bahwa perkembangan teknologi Korea Selatan, yang ditunjang dengan strategi, transfer teknologi, dankomersialisasi teknologi telah mengalami perkembangan yang sangat pesat. Hal ini cukup beralasan, sebab pemerintah Korea Selatan menyediakan dana dalam jumlah besar untuk investasi pada riset dan pengembangan (research and development/R&D).

Penerapan  e-Procurement
E-Procurement merupakan salah satu pendekatan terbaik dalam mencegah terjadinya korupsi dalam pengadaan barang dan jasa pemerintah. Dengan e-Procurement, peluang untuk kontak langsung antara penyedia barang/jasa dengan panitia pengadaan menjadi semakin kecil, lebih transparan, lebih hemat waktu dan biaya, serta dalam pelaksanaannya mudah untuk melakukan pertanggungjawaban keuangan. Hal tersebut dikarenakan sistem elektronik tersebut mendapatkan sertifikasi secara internasional (Jasin, Zulaiha, Rachman, & Ariati, 2007). Korea Selatan telah sukses menerapkan e-Procurement ini. Di Korea Selatan,

e-Procurement dikenal dengan Korea On-line E-Procurement System (KONEPS). KONEPS ini mulai diterapkan sejak tahun 2002. Sistem KONEPS di Korea sudah terintegrasi dengan baik, terbukti dengan banyaknya penghargaan internasional yang diberikan kepada KONEPS. Tiga tahun sejak diterapkan, KONEPS telah mendapatkan penghargaan the best practice in procurement by the U.N. Penerapan e-Procurement di Korea Selatan didasari atas dua alasan, yaitu pertama, pengadaan pemerintah yang ditandai dengan kertas berorientasi prosedur, pekerjaan padat karya, dan proses yang rumit. Hal tersebut tentu menyebabkan kurang efisiensi, transparansi rendah, dan kualitas layanan yang buruk. Kedua, lingkungan pengadaan yang berubah seiring kemajuan yang semakin cepat membuat transaksi komersial menjadi lebih mudah dilakukan secara daring, dan lebih menekankan pada layanan pelanggan dan transparansi bisnis.

Baca Artikel lain dari Majalah Kredibel LKPP:

 

Cikal Bakal KONEPS
Di Korea Selatan, lembaga yang mewadahi pelayanan e-Procurement adalah Public Procurement Service (PPS). Public Procurement Service merupakan pusat procuring agency di Korea Selatan. Layanan pengadaan umum (PPS) didirikan sejak tanggal 17 Januari 1949 di bawah kantor perdana menteri dan saat ini memiliki 935 karyawan. Saat awal pembentukannya, lembaga ini bernama Provisional Office of Foreign Supply (POFS) yang bertanggung jawab dalam mengelola persediaan bantuan luar negeri. POFS dikonsolidasi kandengan kantor pengadaan luar negeri (the Office of Foreign Procurement), dan selanjutnya menjadi kantor pasokan asing. Kemudian pada tanggal 2 Oktober 1961, lembaga ini diperluas dari lembaga pengadaan procurement domestik menjadi agen procuring pusat.

Sejak saat itu, barang-barang yang diperlukan untuk malaksanakan program-program pembangunan ekonomi pemerintah diperoleh dalam jumlah yang banyak tanpa hambatan. Lembaga Ini juga telah menggunakan sumber daya keuangan yang terbatas dengan cara yang efisien. Lembaga ini telah mendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi Korea dengan waktu yang cepat dalam dekade terakhir. Pada tahun 1967, PPS menambahkan fungsi baru, yaitu menstabilkan pasokan dan permintaan, serta harga bahan baku asing utama dan kebutuhan dasar. Dengan fungsi-fungsi ini, PPS mampu untuk menstabilkan perekonomian nasional selama krisis sumber daya internasional pada akhir 1970-an dan selama krisis mata uang Asia 1997. PPS juga merupakan tempat pembelian barang dan jasa, dan kontrak proyek-proyek konstruksi untuk pusat dan pemerintah daerah yang bernilai lebih dari $42,000 dan proyek-proyek konstruksi kontrak senilai lebih dari 2,5 juta dolar. Apabila kontrak kurang dari jumlah ini dilakukan secara independen oleh masing-masing organisasi publik. Salah satu peran PPS adalah mengoperasikan sistem e-Procurement yang digunakan oleh semua organisasi pemerintah. PPS telah menetapkan standar umum prosedur e-Procurement, dan menyediakan informasi penting tentang pengadaan termasuk produk, harga, pemasok, dan pelanggan.

Banyaknya pengerjaan proyek konstruksi dan pekerjaan sipil di Korea mencapai 91 triliun won selama tahun 2013. Sektor Publik sebesar 36 triliun won (39,6%), dan sektor swasta 55 triliun won (60,4%). Pada 2013, pengerjaan kontrak publik yang dibuat oleh PPS mencapai 15 triliun won, yaitu mewakili 16,5% dari total konstruksi dan pekerjaan sipil di Korea, serta 41,7% dari total kontrak pekerjaan umum (Value-Creating Procurement Service Provider PPS: May, 2014).

Perkembangan Korea On-line E-Procurement System (KONEPS)
Public Procurement Service (PPS) Korea Selatan mendirikan Korea On-line E-Procurement System (KONEPS). KONEPS merupakan sistem e-Procurement terintegrasi yang memberikan kontribusi besar terhadap efisiensi, efektivitas dan integritas pengadaan publik di Korea. Sistem online ini juga memungkinkan proses yang nyaman dan cepat untuk seluruh prosedur administratif terkait pengadaan publik, meliputi pengajuan harga, kontrak, pembayaran, dan penyampaian produk. Informasi pengadaan, meliputi penerimaan permintaan pembelian (purchase request) dan pengumuman pelelangan kepada publik, pemenangan kontrak dan status kontrak, disediakan secara online, sehingga menjamin keadilan dan transparansi dari seluruh transaksi. Melalui adopsi bentuk standar dan interkoneksi dengan sistem elektronik lainnya, KONEPS menghasilkan penghematan administrasi sekitar 8 miliar rupiah per tahun, dengan lebih dari 80% penghematan ini diperoleh dari peserta sektor swasta. Pelaksanaan KONEPS ini terpusat pada satu sistem yang dikelola oleh PPS.Prosedur e-Procurement melalui KONEPS ini dibagi menjadi dua bagian, yaitu pengadaan untuk masyarakat lokal dan pengadaan untuk masyarakat luar Korea Selatan. Jadi, peserta pengadaan barang dan jasa tidak hanya bisa diikuti oleh masyarakat lokal Korea Selatan saja, tetapi juga seluruh masyarakat di dunia. Pengadaan untuk masyarakat luar Korea Selatan ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh barang-barang dari luar negeri yang dibutuhkan oleh Pemerintah Korea Selatan. Sistem Primerly KONEPS adalah sistem sentralisasi atau terpusat, tetapi badan-badan umum daerah dan perusahaan publik dapat menggunakan juga melakukan pengadaan langsung dalam menggunakan sistem Koneps sehingga tidak perlu melalui pusat. Baik lembaga umum pusat maupun daerah serta perusahaan publik memiliki kewajiban yang berbeda dalam hal menggunakan KONEPS. Hal ini ditegaskan pula oleh Mr. Chung Yangho selaku administrator Public Procurement Service Korea.

Dalam perkembangannya saat ini, sistem KONEPS sedang mengerjakan beberapa hal teknis dalam rangka optimalisasi. Mengingat KONEPS adalah sistem yang besar maka harus dipastikan dapat berfungsi dengan baik dan efektif. Korea Selatan telah terbukti berhasil dalam menerapkan strategi pembangunannya hingga mendunia berkat etos kerja dan cara berpikir mereka yang tetap fokus, inovatif, dan terbuka. Tak lupa pengembangan sumber daya manusianya melalui sistem pendidikan yang maju dan didukung penuh oleh pemerintahannya. Faktor-faktor tersebut menjadi cerminan Indonesia agar bersedia berkaca dan mengikuti jejak kesuksesan negeri Ginseng, Korea Selatan hingga Indonesia mampu menjadi negara yang diperhitungkan di era pasar persaingan global.
Majalah Kredibel
Sumber : Majalah Kredibel LKPP – 2016

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