Penyebab Keterlambatan Pengiriman Obat

January 9, 2017 by  

Artikel ini ada pada kategori Pengadaan - Berita dan Artikel Pengadaan, Pengadaan Barang Jasa

Pengadaan obat  memiliki tingkat kompleksitas yang tinggi, terutama jika dibandingkan dengan komoditas lainnya. Luasnya cakupan wilayah distribusi, ketidaksiapan pabrikan dalam produksi, hingga proses perencanaan yang belum matang menyebabkan pengiriman obat acapkali mengalami keterlambatan. Lalu bagaimana hal itu dapat terjadi?

Deputi Bidang Monitoring, Evaluasi, dan Pengambangan Sistem Informasi Sarah Sadiqa menjelaskan permasalahan keterlambatan pengiriman obat sering kali terjadi untuk permintaan yang datang dari luar Jawa. Meskipun penyedia obat memiliki jaringan distributor dalam penanganan ekspedisi, faktor geografis yang jauh menyebabkan distributor melakukan pengiriman berdasarkan kuota tertentu. Hal ini untuk menekan biaya yang timbul akibat proses pengiriman secara parsial (per permintaan).
sarahsadiqaLKPP”Mungkin ibu belanjanya cuma 1,5 juta (sampai dengan) 2 juta. Ongkos kirimnya lebih mahal. Akibatnya, distributor berpikir ulang. Istilahnya kayak di-suspend, Bu. Jadi, ditunggu dulu (oleh distributor), Bu, agak banyakan dikit ke daerah sana,” ujar Sarah saat menemui rombongan DPRD Flores Timur.

Sementara itu, sistem perencanaan oleh rumah sakit di Indonesia pun masih belum bisa mengantisipasi kebutuhan obat secara tepat. Pemesanan obat oleh rumah sakit sering kali masih dilakukan secara mendadak tanpa mempertimbangkan ketersedian stok. Padahal, menurut Sarah, pihak rumah sakit seharusnya dapat melakukan pengadaan dengan mempertimbangkan rentang waktu susut persediaan obat.

”Artinya, bukan model buka lemari obat sekarang: obatnya kosong sekang juga, beli sekarang juga, harus datang obatnya. Tidak begitu,” imbuhnya.

Di samping itu, kebijakan  Kementerian Kesehatan terkait dengan masa kedaluwarsa obat yang dipesan pemerintah pun masih dirasa memberatkan pabrikan. Dengan ketentuan masa kedaluwarsa selama dua tahun, banyak pihak pabrikan yang enggan memproduksi obat jauh sebelum permintaan obat datang. ”Ketika itu menjadi mandatory dua tahun, Bapak/Ibu sekalian, tidak ada satu pabrik pun yang berani nyetok obat di pertengahan,” terang Sarah.

Sarah mengakui, penetapan ambang batas masa kedaluwarsa sebetulnya sangat penting guna menjamin hak-hak konsumen. Namun, menurutnya, penetapan kebijakan ini sebaiknya dibuat lebih fleksibel dengan tetap mempertimbangkan strategi manajemen persediaan  obat.   ”Fleksibilitas, ibaratnya, diperlukan untuk membuat pabrik itu punya stok (atau) punya barang yang ready ketika bapak ibu sekalian tiba tiba minta,” katanya.

Jika menilik pada pola produksi penyedia, ia melihat ada kecenderungan pihak pabrikan menunggu permintaan datang sebelum melakukan produksi. Masalahnya, kegiatan penyiapan bahan baku hingga proses produksi selesai dapat memakan waktu hingga tujuh bulan.

”Proses bikin obat bukan proses yang cepat. Ada sekitar 7 bulan. Tiga bulan bahan baku terkirim, 2-3 bulan berproses, packing  dan kemudian dikirim kira-kira bisa sampai 7 bulan,” pungkas Sarah.


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